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How to study effectively ....

1. STICK TO PRINT


Tablets and other eLearning media are convenient and portable, but research suggests that traditional print materials still have the upper hand when it comes to studying. Some researchers argue that adopting interactive habits like scrolling, clicking, and pointing enhances the academic experience, but more than 90% of students polled said they prefer a hard copy or print over a digital device when it comes to studying and school work. Furthermore, a psychology lecturer finds that students required more repetition to learn new material if they were reading on a computer screen versus reading printed material.

2. LISTEN TO MUSIC


While some experts argue the ability to concentrate during silence or listening to music while studying is left up to personal preference, many agree that playing certain types of music, such as "obscure 18th century composers," can help students engage parts of their brain that help them pay attention and make predictions. Not to mention, listening to music may improve your mood and change your whole outlook about studying in general.

3. EXERCISE FIRST


The benefits of exercise on the brain have been well established in the fields of health, fitness, and psychology. Studies show our brainpower gets a boost following even a short workout, as our bodies are pumping oxygen and nutrients to the brain. According to Dr. Douglas B. McKeag, breaking a sweat shortly before cracking the books can make you more alert, open, and able to learn new information during your post-workout study session.

4. RELAX


Stress hinders learning. UC Irvine researchers find that stress lasting as briefly as a couple of hours can engage corticotropin-releasing hormones that disrupt the process of creating and storing memories. Taking study breaks to exercise or drawing a few deep breaths will help your studying if they lower your stress level.

WHEN AND WHERE TO STUDY

While you might think late-night study sessions are disadvantageous to your academic success, research suggests they are not necessarily a bad idea. Additionally, some psychologists even encourage students to break with their daily college-life routines, especially when it comes to studying for a midterm or final exam.

5. STUDY WHEN YOU’RE TIRED, AND GET SOME REST!


Studying at your tiredest can help your brain retain higher concentrations of new skills, such as speaking a foreign language or playing an instrument. There’s even a term for it: sleep-learning. As the memory-consolidation process does its best work during slow-wave sleep, your brain could be getting both the restoration and reactivation it needs during its time of rest. All of this means that reviewing study materials before bed can help you brain learn, even in your sleep.

6. CHANGE YOUR SCENERY


A change of scenery impacts learning and concentration abilities. Psychologist Robert Bjork suggests that simply moving to a different room to study (or going a step further and learning amongst the great outdoors) could increase both your concentration and retention levels.

STUDY METHODS

Scientists have been investigating information retention and the studying process for decades. The best way to find the most effective study method for you is to test various tips, such as the ones listed below.

7. THWART THE "CURVE OF FORGETTING"


Scientists started exploring the "curve of forgetting" in 1885, but the concept remains useful to today's study habits. The gist of the "curve of forgetting" is this: The first time you hear a lecture or study something new, you retain up to 80% of what you’ve just learned -- if you review the material within 24 hours. Fortunately, this effect is cumulative; so after a week, you may retain 100% of the same information after only five minutes of review. Generally, psychologists agree this type of interval studying -- as opposed to "cramming" -- is best, and that students should study closer to the day they learned the material than the day of the test.

8. USE ACTIVE RECALL


This controversial method of studying was a hot topic in 2009, when a psychology professor published an article advising students against reading and rereading textbooks -- which, he argued, merely lead students to thinking they know the material better than they do since it is right in front of them. Conversely, he suggested students use active recall: closing the book and reciting everything they can remember up to that point to practice long-term memorization.

9. USE THE LEITNER SYSTEM


Named for its originator, German scientist Sebastian Leitner, the study method forces students to learn, through repetition, the material they know least well. The system involves moving cards with correctly answered questions further down a line of boxes and moving incorrectly answered cards back to the first box. Thus, the cards in the first box are studied most frequently and the interval becomes greater as the student proceeds down the line, forcing her to review again and again the information she doesn't know.

10. TAKE THE PRACTICE TESTS


As you would with the ACT, SAT, or GMAT, take advantage of professors and instructors who make old exams available as practice tests. You can get a sense of the instructor’s testing style and a become familiar with how the information might be presented on the real test day. A 2011 study finds students who tested themselves with a practice test after learning the material retained 50% more of the information a week later than their peers who did not take a practice test.

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